Orientation, when it comes to files, is related to the positioning of a file. Thus, it is most commonly found as meta information in files that contain visual representation such as video and image files. Documents that contain images, such as PDF or DOC files, can also contain Orientation information about these images.
The values given for the Orientation give the positioning of the image data. In most cases, this is either horizontal or vertical. In some instances, however, the Orientation can give information about whether the image in question was rotated to any degree. If so, it is indicated by the value “rotate” alongside the degree the image was rotated in (90, 180, 270 degrees). Furthermore, it gives an indication of which direction the image was rotated, “cw” standing for clockwise and “ccw” meaning counterclockwise.
The Orientation can be present in a file with additional values that further specify which Orientation is referred to. For example, it can refer to the camera Orientation or the Orientation of different filters.